Hyundai HD120 garbage truck conversion from fuel Diesel to electric, technology provided by Green Motor Technology

  1. General topics

Converting a Hyundai HD120 garbage truck, which is typically powered by a diesel engine, into an electric vehicle (EV) involves a substantial overhaul of the power train and other related systems. The process would include several key steps:

 

1.1 Electric Motor Integration: Replace the existing diesel engine with a high-torque electric motor suitable for heavy-duty applications. This motor will be responsible for powering the truck’s drivetrain.

1.2 Battery Pack Installation: Design and install a large capacity lithium-ion battery pack to store the energy required for the truck’s operation. Given the heavy-duty nature of garbage trucks and their frequent stop-and-go cycles, a high-capacity battery with robust fast-charging capabilities would be necessary.

1.3 Power Electronics: Integrate inverters and controllers to manage the flow of electricity between the battery and the motor, ensuring smooth operation and efficient use of energy.

1.4 Charging System: Install charging infrastructure that can handle the high voltage and amperage needed to charge the large battery in a reasonable time frame.

1.5 Drive System Conversion: Retrofit the transmission and other mechanical components to work with the new electric motor. An EV garbage truck might not require a traditional multi-speed transmission as electric motors deliver peak torque across a wide RPM range.

1.6 Ancillary Systems: Convert or replace all auxiliary systems that were previously powered by the diesel engine, such as power steering, air conditioning, and hydraulic brake systems .

Hyundai-HD120

 

2. Vehicle basic introduction:

Rear wheel drive.

Dimensions: 9.5*2.2*2.5

Weight of vehicle 4.5ton.  Weight after loading: 12 tons.

Accepted max speed with loading 60- 80KM/H, per charge distance 250KM.

Type Diesel, Turbocharged (Intercooler) 4-stroke, water-cooled, Common Rail

Number/arrangement of cylinders 6/in-line

Engine capacity (cm3) 5899

Max. Power (hp/rpm) EURO 4 – EURO 5       225/2500 – 250/2500

Max. Torque (Nm/rpm) EURO 4 – EURO 5           637/1400 – 853/1400

Electrical system Battery 24V-120Ah

Generator 24V – 70A

Starter 24V – 5kW

Air filter Dry paper element

Clutch Type Dry single-disc, hydraulically driven

Type Mechanical, 6-speed

Gear ratios 1;2;3;4;5;6th gear 6.967 (6.580); 4.247 (3.922); 2.454 (2.257); 1.471 (1.441); 1.000 (1.000); 0.769 (0.735)

Reverse gear 6.492 (6.061)

Tires: Front Single/ rear  Double, 245/70 R19.5

Steering: Steering column Adjustable telescopic

Brake system: Working Double-circuit, pneumatic, with ABS, with VDC stability control system (for Euro 5)

Brake type Front / Rear Drum / Drum

Parking spring type on the rear wheels

Suspension: Type Front/rear With semi-elliptical leaf springs, with shock absorbers

Anti-roll bar On the front axle

Fuel tank: Capacity l/material 200/steel

Hyundai-HD120-chassis

 

3.Conversion thoughts/ways:

3.1, Keep the original transmission , just remove the engine, so still there will be 6 gears in the transmission.

3.2, Remove engine and original transmission, use a shaft, direct to the rear axle differential. so he asked about differential ratio.

3.3 The article here we introduce the second way above.

 

4.Electric Motor Integration:

Motor
Rated power(kW) 120
Maximum power(kW) 240
Rated torque(N.m) 1050
Peak torque(N.m) 3000
Speed ra’ting(rpm) 1100
Maximum speed(rpm) 3200
Insulation grade H
Cooling mode(cooling) Liquid cooling
Levels of protection IP67
Physical dimension

(external diameter/length)(mm)

Φ450*412
Shaft extension mode Nude shaft+tight sleeve
Quality(kg) 245
Controller
Rated input voltage(battery voltage)(Vdc) 576
Output voltage range (Vdc) 420-750
Controller capacitance   withstand voltage(Vdc) 900
Rated output current (A) 288
Maximum output current(A) 720
Rated capacity(KVA) 180
Maximum capacity(KVA) 360
Degree of protection IP67
Auxiliary supply voltage 24V
Physical dimension of water nozzle Φ25
Body size 505*449*143
weight(kg) 24

 

                                

 

 

5.Battery Pack Installation

The Battery Pack Installation phase in converting a Hyundai HD120 garbage truck from diesel to electric involves several critical steps:

5.1 Battery Sizing and Selection: Determine the appropriate battery capacity based on the energy demands of the truck, taking into account factors like the vehicle’s weight, driving range, duty cycle (including frequent stops and starts), and the power needed for hydraulics to operate the waste collection mechanism. Lithium-ion batteries are commonly used due to their high energy density and ability to handle deep cycling.

5.2 Pack Design: Design the battery pack layout, ensuring optimal weight distribution and protection against vibration, shock, and potential damage from road debris. This often requires custom-made enclosures and thermal management systems to maintain ideal operating temperatures.

5.3 Mounting Structure: Create a sturdy mounting structure within the chassis of the truck to hold the battery packs securely. Space optimization is crucial as these battery packs can be quite large and heavy.

5.4 Electrical Integration: Connect the battery pack to the vehicle’s power electronics, which includes wiring up the battery management system (BMS). The BMS monitors and manages each cell’s performance, preventing overcharge or undercharge conditions, and ensures balanced discharge across all cells.

5.5 Safety Measures: Implement safety features such as fuses, circuit breakers, and fire suppression systems to protect against short circuits and thermal runaway events.

5.6 Cooling System: Design and install a cooling/heating system to regulate the temperature of the battery cells. This could involve liquid-cooling loops, forced-air cooling, or a combination of both, depending on the specific battery technology and expected usage patterns.

5.7 Charging Interface: Provide a high-voltage connection point for the battery to interface with the charging station. This should comply with industry standards for DC fast charging or AC charging.

5.8 Monitoring and Diagnostics: Integrate sensors and diagnostic tools to monitor battery health, state of charge, and overall performance. This data helps optimize operations and schedule maintenance effectively.

A professional team with experience in electric vehicle conversions and battery systems should carry out this complex process to guarantee safety and reliability. Additionally, proper disposal and recycling plans for end-of-life batteries must also be considered to adhere to environmental best practices.

 

6. Power Electronics

In the context of converting a Hyundai HD120 garbage truck to electric, power electronics play a vital role in managing and controlling the flow of electrical energy throughout the system. Here’s how power electronics are integrated and function:

6.1 Inverter: The inverter takes the direct current (DC) from the battery pack and converts it into alternating current (AC) at variable frequencies and voltages to drive the electric motor. This allows the motor to operate efficiently across a broad range of speeds and torques needed for the truck’s various functions.

 6.2 Converter: A bidirectional converter can convert AC to DC for charging the battery when connected to an external power source or convert DC from the battery to power onboard systems and charge other low-voltage DC devices.

6.3 DC-DC Converter: This component adjusts the voltage level from the main battery pack to suit the needs of different subsystems in the vehicle, such as lighting, control systems, and HVAC.

6.4 Battery Management System (BMS): The BMS is a part of the power electronics suite that monitors the state of each battery cell, balancing the charge among them, and protecting the battery from overcharging, undercharging, and overheating. It communicates with the inverter/converter to ensure safe and efficient operation.

6.5 Throttle Controller/Electronic Control Unit (ECU): In an electric vehicle, the ECU receives signals from the accelerator pedal and controls the power output to the motor via the inverter, regulating speed and torque accordingly.

6.6 Pre-Charge Relay/Contactor: These high-power switches ensure a controlled and safe connection of the battery to the rest of the electrical system during charging and discharging cycles.

6.7 Circuit Protection: Fuses, relays, and other protective devices are strategically placed throughout the power electronics system to prevent damage from overcurrent, short circuits, or other electrical issues.

Overall, the power electronics system is the ‘brain’ behind the electric powertrain, ensuring seamless integration and optimal performance of the battery, motor, and other vehicle systems.

 

7.Charging System:

When converting a Hyundai HD120 garbage truck from diesel to electric, the charging system is a critical component to ensure the vehicle has a reliable source of energy. Here’s what a robust charging system for an electric garbage truck would entail:

7.1 Charging Connector:  A standard or high-power charging port compatible with the electric grid is installed to allow connection to charging stations. Depending on the desired charging speed, this could be a CCS (Combined Charging System), CHAdeMO, or Tesla Supercharger connector, or it might adhere to local charging standards.

7.2 Onboard Charger:  An onboard charger is installed to convert the alternating current (AC) from the grid into direct current (DC) that can be stored in the battery pack. The size of the onboard charger affects the rate at which the battery can be charged; for a commercial vehicle like a garbage truck, a high-power charger capable of delivering hundreds of kilowatts would be necessary to minimize downtime.

7.3 Fast Charging Capability: Since garbage trucks have demanding daily routes and schedules, they may require rapid charging capabilities. This could mean installing a high-power DC fast charger that bypasses the onboard charger and directly charges the battery at a much faster rate.

7.4 Smart Charging: The charging system may incorporate smart charging technology to allow for off-peak charging times, optimizing electricity costs and reducing strain on the grid during peak hours. It may also support Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) technology, allowing the truck to feed power back into the grid during periods of high demand.

7.5 Charging Infrastructure: Adequate charging infrastructure needs to be set up at the garage or depot where the truck is parked overnight or during breaks. This may include dedicated high-power charging stations and possibly battery swapping facilities if applicable.

7.6 Charging Protocol: The charging system should adhere to communication protocols that facilitate safe and efficient charging. This includes compatibility with networked charging systems that can remotely monitor and manage charging sessions.

 

8. Ancillary Systems

Ancillary Systems Conversion in the process of electrifying a Hyundai HD120 garbage truck involves adapting or replacing the supporting systems that were originally powered by the diesel engine. Here’s how these systems could be converted:

8.1 Power Steering System: Conventional hydraulic power steering can be replaced with an electric power steering (EPS) system, which uses an electric motor to assist steering instead of relying on a hydraulic pump driven by the engine.

8.2 Air Conditioning System: The compressor for the air conditioning can be swapped for an electrically-driven variant. Alternatively, an HVAC system optimized for electric vehicles can be installed, which often uses heat pumps for both heating and cooling.

8.3 Hydraulic Systems: Garbage trucks rely heavily on hydraulic systems for lifting and compacting waste. These can be adapted to run on electric power by using electrically driven hydraulic pumps. The pumps draw energy from the main battery pack and can be controlled precisely to match the varying demands of the hydraulic machinery.

8.4 Braking System: While conventional braking remains, an electric vehicle can benefit from regenerative braking. During braking, the electric motor reverses its function to act as a generator, capturing kinetic energy and converting it back into electrical energy to recharge the battery.

8.5 Electrical Accessories: Lighting, wipers, dashboard instruments, and other electrical accessories can remain largely unchanged but would now draw power from the high-voltage battery instead of an alternator.

8.6 Heating System: Instead of drawing heat from the engine coolant, an electric heating system can be installed that uses a resistive element or a heat pump to warm the cabin and defrost windows.

8.7 Cooling System: The cooling system for the electric motor and battery pack would need to be designed and installed to keep them within their optimal operating temperature ranges.

Each of these ancillary systems must be carefully integrated and managed by the vehicle’s control systems to ensure efficient energy use and reliable operation. The goal is to create an electric version of the HD120 garbage truck that performs its duties effectively while maximizing the benefits of electrification, such as reduced emissions and lower operating costs.

 

Green Motor Technologies’ approach to retrofitting a Hyundai HD120 garbage truck for electrification focuses on transitioning auxiliary systems from traditional diesel-powered operations to electrically driven ones. This includes swapping out hydraulic power steering for EPS, installing electric A/C compressors, adapting hydraulic machinery to electrically powered pumps, implementing regenerative braking, sourcing all electrical accessories from the high-voltage battery, and installing dedicated electric heating and cooling systems for climate control and component regulation. By systematically integrating these green technologies, Green Spike aims to deliver an eco-friendly HD120 electric garbage truck with improved efficiency, minimized emissions, and optimized operational costs without compromising functionality.

 

 

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